Oteoporosis is a process in which the structure and density of bones is reduced which increases the risk of fractures. Fractures may occur after only minor falls or injuries. Treatment includes identifying risk factors for bone loss and treatment to improve bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk.
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland at the base of the neck that makes thryoid hormones. Diseases of the thyroid can result in an over or under production of thyroid hormones. The thyroid can also develop nodules; an abnormal overgrowth of thyroid cells that can produce symptoms relating to compression or less commonly develop into thyroid cancer.
Type II diabetes is a chronic condition caused by hgih levels of peripheral insulin resistance and insufficient insulin production from the pancreas. It is important to control diabetes to minimise the risk of long term complications. There are many lifestyle and pharmacological therapies available.
Cardiovascular health is closely linked with metabolic health including insulin resistance, pre-diabetes, diabetes and overweight/obesity. Many of our current treatments target both cardiovascular and metabolic health.
Elevated weight can be associated with insulin resistance, lifestyle factors such as physical inactivity, medications and of course, genetics. Management includes screening for reversible risk factors, lifestyle modifications and weight loss medications.
The pituitary gland is located in the brain and is considered the 'master' endocrine gland as it sends hormonal signals to other endocrine organs in the body. Pituitary disorders are caused when the gland produces either too much or too little of hormones.
Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that results from failure to produce physiological levels of testosterone (androgen deficiency) and a normal number of sperm due to either organic or functional suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular (HPT) axis.
With age, the ovaries produce reducled levels of oestrogen which can lead to symptoms of menopausae which include hot flushes, vaginal dryness, mood disorders, fatigue, changes in cognition. There are effective therapies available to relieve these symptoms. Women are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis after menopause so screening is recommended.
PCOS is a common endocrine condition associated with irregular menstrual cycle and clinical features such as acne or unwanted hair on the face or body (hirsutism) or hair loss. Patients may have high levels of androgens such as testosterone. Treatment includes lifestyle modifications and medications.
Patients with eating disorders are at risk of premature bone loss and fractures, disorders of electrolytes, thyroid dysfunction and changes in menstrual cycles.
Disorders such as insulin resistance, type II diabetes, PCOS and overweight/obesity are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Treatment includes screening for risk factors and targeted lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy.
The parathyroid glands are four, very small glands found in the neck behind the thyroid gland. The main role of the parathyroid glands is to produce parathryoid hormone which regulates calcium levels in the blood. Excessive levels of parathryoid hormone can lead to elevated calcium levels and bone and kidney disease.
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